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Dentistry: EBP Process

A collection of dentistry resources from all dental-related LibGuides.

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EBD: A Five Step Process

  1. Ask the clinical question.
  2. Acquire the best evidence.
  3. Appraise the evidence.
  4. Apply the evidence and experience to the problem.
  5. Assess the impact.
Sackett, D., & Rosenberg, W. (1995). The need for evidence-based medicineJR Soc Med88(11), 620-624.
Sibbald, W. (1998). Some opinions on the future of evidence-based medicineCrit Care Clin14(3), 549-558

PICO Model: Answering Foreground Questions

Use the PICO method to construct your clinical question as the first part of your evidence-based search process.


PICO slide from:

Tutorial: How To Form an Answerable Clinical Question. (2006) Cincinnati Children'sLicense: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC.

Evidence Hierarchy and Study Type Definitions

Meta-analysis:  systematic methods that use statistical techniques for combining results from different studies to obtain a quantitative estimate of the overall effect of a particular intervention or variable on a defined outcome. This combination may produce a stronger conclusion than can be provided by any individual study. 

Systematic review: a structured literature review that addresses a question that is formulated to be answered by analysis of evidence, and involves objective means of searching the literature, applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to this literature, critically appraising the relevant literature, and extraction and synthesis of data from evidence base to formulate findings. 

Randomized controlled trial (RCT):  a prospective experiment in which investigators randomly assign an eligible sample of patients to one or more treatment groups and a control group and follow patients' outcomes. 

Cohort study: an observational study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a similar group i.e., the cohort, either contemporary or historical, of patients that did not receive the intervention. In an adjusted- (or matched-) cohort study, investigators identify (or make statistical adjustments to provide) a cohort group that has characteristics (e.g., age, gender, disease severity) that are as similar as possible to the group that experienced the intervention.

Case-control study:  a retrospective observational study designed to determine the relationship between a particular outcome of interest (e.g., disease or condition) and a potential cause (e.g., an intervention, risk factor, or exposure). Investigators identify a group of patients with a specified outcome (cases) and a group of patients without the specified outcome (controls). Investigators then compare the histories of the cases and the controls to determine the rate or level at which each group experienced a potential cause. As such, this study design leads from outcome (disease or condition) to cause (intervention, risk factor, or exposure).

Series: an uncontrolled study (prospective or retrospective) of a series (succession) of consecutive patients who receive a particular intervention and are followed to observe their outcomes. 

Case study: an uncontrolled (prospective or retrospective) observational study involving an intervention and outcome in a single patient.


U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2014, January 06). HTA 101: Glossary. Retrieved from

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